Phytochemical Analysis of Juglans regia oil and kernel Exploring their Antinociceptive and Anti-inflammatory Potentials Utilizing Combined Bio-guided GC-FID, GC–MS and HPLC Analyses


tJuglans regia L., Juglandaceae, is broadly used due to its immunomodulatory effects, potentials inprotecting against many sever-disorders, and high safety-profile. The aim of this work is to make aphytochemical analysis of J. regia oil and kernel exploring their antinociceptive and anti-inflammatorypotentials utilizing combined bio-guided gas chromatography with mass spectrometer (GC–MS), gaschromatography with flame ionization detection (GC–FID) and reversed-phase high-performance liquidchromatography (RP–HPLC) analyses. Combined bio-guided GC–MS, GC–FID and RP–HPLC analyses isan innovative-combined-technique aiming at efficiently analyzing various-extracts phytochemical andbiological characters. The J. regia oil and kernel ethyl-acetate extract were monitored during exploringtheir possible acute-antinflammatory, antidiabetic and antidiabetic-neuropathy. Glycated-hemoglobin,serum-insulin, serum-catalase and lipid-peroxidation levels have been also monitored. Combined bio-guided GC–FID, GC–MS and HPLC analyses have shown to be an efficient analyzing-method throughidentifying the most active compound, linoleic acid. Linoleic acid has shown the highest improvement ofthe acute inflammatory-pain, chronic blood-glucose level reduction, serum-insulin elevation, and nor-malization of glycated-hemoglobin levels. J. regia oil has shown more lipid-peroxidation reduction, whilekernel ethyl-acetate extract has shown more acute-blood-glucose level reduction and serum-catalaselevels elevation. Compared to tramadol, the highest-doses of J. regia oil, kernel ethyl-acetate extract,and linoleic acid have shown higher antinociceptive-potentials in amelioration of thermal-hyperalgesicand anti-allodynic neuropathic-pain. Thus, the antinflammatory, the reduction of oxidative-stress, andthe insulin-secretagogue potentials might be among the possible mechanisms of improvement ofneuropathic-pain. In correlation to conventional-techniques, the combined bio-guided analyses haveshown to be an efficient innovative-combined technique. After further clinical studies, J. regia might beutilized as a possible-remedy for various painful-syndromes.


Karim M Raafat

Journal/Conference Information

Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia,DOI:, ISSN: 0102-695X, Volume: 28, Issue: 1, Pages Range: 358-368