Critical Thinking and Collaborative Problem-Solving for Improving Education Performance – Case Study Thermal Retrofit to Ensure Health and Wellbeing of Historic Built Environment in Lebanon


The global ecological crisis is an indispensable issue that needs to be solved. The importance of developing critical thinking and communication skills in teaching-learning methods will help to enhance education performance; as well, the students would become informed participants in environmental decision-making. Lebanon is suffering from multiple ecological problems due to the environmental mismanagement, particularly energy problems. For this reason, training the Lebanese students mainly in architecture schools should to think critically about environmental issues, and using collaborative problem-solving as one of teaching-learning methods and techniques, which will be directly reflected in finding solutions to the problem under investigation. The researcher aims to experiment and apply this method in a history of architecture class at faculty of architecture, to improve the environmental quality of health and wellbeing in historical built environment. This will increase the awareness for conservation aspects of architectural heritage in students, on the one hand. In addition to spread the spirit of teamwork, to facilitate the concept of integrated design process between the different disciplines when practicing professional life, on the other hand. Therefore, the study aims to produce a new methodology for integrating teaching-learning method in architecture, presenting various international attempts of thermal retrofit in historical built environment, guiding the architectural students to follow the same approach of such projects, which will save energy in a country that has a major problem in electricity. The case study is based on a real problem in a realistic situation in Tripoli old Souks at north Lebanon, in which the instructor and the students will analyze and propose some solutions of building thermal retrofit within this historical context, using collaborative problem-solving strategy that could clarifying its reversal extent on the validity of health and wellbeing with the continuity of conserving the architectural heritage.


Khaled Ahmed El-Sayed El-Daghar

Journal/Conference Information

The Environmental Sciences and Sustainable Development (ESSD) Journal, Sustainable Cultural Heritage Preservation. IEREK Press,DOI:, ISSN: 2357-0857, Volume: 5, Issue: #1, Pages Range: 37-53,