Researh Tools

What is bibliography?

It is considered as a list of references used in a research paper, like magazines, books, encyclopedias, and websites. It is the last page of a research paper where references are organized alphabetically.

We have many bibliographic styles: APA, MLA (MODERN LANGUAGE ASSOCIATION), and CHICAGO citation. The following applied style is APA (American Psychological Association)

How to evaluate a source on the internet?
Internet contains a lot of inaccurate information

How the way to verify this information?
Through a number of criteria including:

Authority
Who is the person who created this source? Who publishes this material, or makes it available (Famous Author, occupation, years of experience…)

Accuracy
Are the facts presented in the material correct? How do you know? Can they verified
using an outside source?

Currency
When was the material published?
Based on the continuous updating of content, including copyright and date last updated

Objectivity
Based on clear vision, not of bias to particular ideas

Coverage
Based on the coverage of the subject matter in all its aspects, and satisfy the needs of users

Clarity
Is the information well-organized: can you identify the main points?
Are there errors in spelling, grammar, or punctuation?
Do graphical elements such as tables, charts, illustrations help to make the author's point?

Purpose
For what this source created? To inform or to persuade? To explain or to sell? to document or to entertain?

How to conduct Basic Search Strategies?

Through boolean operators (AND,OR,NOT)

Boolean logic is considered to be a well known search strategy used in search engines and in databases; it helps the user to narrow and broaden his search to get accurate information.

AND: is used to narrow the search and retrieve records containing all of the terms (both words) mentioned in the search.

Example: Library services AND Marketing.

OR: It broadens the search and retrieves results containing any (or both )of the words mentioned in the search

Example: Management OR Administration.

NOT: Narrow the search and retrieve records that do not contain the term following it.

Example: Medicine NOT Herbal medicine.

Research is a way to get information about any subject, in order to find new information and depth of knowledge and it urges students to use information sources and references.

Research steps

1. Identifying the subject: select the theme, or browse the library catalog or the databases to choose the subject or the research problem. It’s is better to choose a specific or narrow subject to search about which is related to student courses.
2. Select the references: user must know the information resources that fit his needs and support his research; references can be in print format or electronic: books, encyclopedias, journals, databases….
3. Organize information: students must collect data and follow the research plan by selecting the title of the search, defining the research problem, writing the hypothesis , analyzing the collected data, writing the opinion and the conclusion in order to present the final results.
4. Reference list: the list contains the references and the information sources used. It might be in more than one language and provides bibliographic information