One of the researches that fall under the Personality and Behaviour category conducted at the Department of Psychology studied self-esteem among college students from four Arab counties. The study aims to (a) to compare undergraduates from four Arab countries on self-esteem, (b) to explore the sex-related differences in self-esteem in these four Arab countries, and (c) to examine the association of self-esteem with both per-capita income and unemployment rate. Four samples of 2,643 students were recruited from Egypt (n = 576), Kuwait (n = 674), Lebanon (n = 826), and Oman (n = 567). They responded to the Arabic version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Kuwaiti and Omani men had a significantly higher mean score on self-esteem than did Egyptian and Lebanese men. Egyptian women scored significantly lower than the Omani women, but the effect size was small. Regarding the sex-related differences in self-esteem, Kuwaiti men had a significantly higher mean score than did their female peers, but the effect size was small, whereas there were no significant sex differences in the other samples. The sex-related difference in self-esteem is a controversial result and it may not be replicable in different countries. It was suggested that self-esteem is associated with high per-capita income and low unemployment rate.
Another study tackled the “Identity Crisis through Adolescence, A Cross-sectional Study of Adolescents”. The main objectives of this study are to a) investigate the interaction between the factors of gender and the stages of adolescence with respect to identity crisis, b) show the differences, if any, between males and females as related to identity crisis, and c) show the differences, if any, between the stages of adolescence concerning identity crisis. The results of the research revealed that the males had higher mean scores than females in the ideological identity which means that the ideological tendencies that Qatari males pass through were exposed to a kind of disintegration and ambiguities, in the field of daily life in particular, such as the religious, political, educational and professional identities.